Typically associated with ideas of equality, freedom and common good, many believe it has lost its meaning and has become more of a buzz word for activists and campaigners. Access to quality health care should never depend on where you live, how much money you have, your race, gender or age. Vulnerable and marginalised communities often face substantial barriers in their fight for access to quality and affordable healthcare. Heavily interconnect, the basic right to health has a huge impact upon and is affected by many other rights, including the right to food, housing, work, education, non-discrimination, access to information, and participation.
By , about 20 percent of our population would be elderly and the demand on the social security system would be really enormous. So, it is very important to remember that social security to the senior citizens is not charity instead it is their basic human right. The age-old idea was that the offender should be confined to the prison and kept away from the community as long as possible.
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But, in course of time, it has been realized that the protection of society is better ensured if the offender is corrected and reformed through individualized treatments. However, it has been perceived that all human beings do not respond in the same manner to a given stimuli. Two individuals may commit the same crime but each act differs from the other in its social, economics, psychological and environmental ramification. This basic understanding has led to the innovation of a number of treatment method for offenders.
Prison or correctional institutions are no longer regarded as custodial institution only but also as treatment and training centres for those who fall foul with laws. But, in due course it was realized that prisons do not serve the purpose of training and rehabilitation of all categories of offenders. Therefore, in course of time, various non-institutional methods of treatment for offenders have been introduced eg: probation, parole, premature release, half-way houses etc.
There are all community based non institutional treatment methods. Thus, Probation is a non-institutional treatment method designed to facilitate the social re-adjustment of offenders. It developed as an alternative to imprisonment. Probation is a method of dealing with specially selected offenders and consists of the conditional suspension of punishment while the offender is placed under the personal supervision of the probation officer and is given individualized treatment. The length of the probation varies and is determined by the court. Moreover, probation is the application of modern scientific casework to individuals, outside institution with the authority of the law behind it.
The object of probation is the ultimate re-establishment of the offenders in the community. The law helps him to help himself to erase the stigma of conviction and gives him the guidance of the probation officer. The supervisory function of a Probation Officer are protecting the community and helping individual under care. The probation officer helps the probationer to become law-abiding and stable. During the probation period, the probation officer maintains contact with the offender to ensure compliance with the rules and regulations and also provides various types of assistance to him.
Assistance to After Care Programmes Social Rehabilitation of ex-convicts and offenders placed under supervision of poor economic condition is a grave social problem.
This scheme is to provide some financial assistance to them for starting some Industry, Craft or Small Trade so as to enable them to earn a livelihood. The After Care Programme intended to rehabilitate released prisoners and probationers coming under the supervision of District Probation Officers. By utilizing this amount they shall be engaged in small scale income generating activities.
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The amount of assistance is Rs. If the amount is insufficient for meeting the expenses this can be attached with some bank loan. The application form will be available from the District Probation Officer. Victim Rehabilitation Fund The scheme is intended to rehabilitate the victims of serious crimes. In practice, the concept of social justice is not kept in a tabernacle, to be venerated and referenced for enlightenment or, as the classicist would have it, as a vessel of virtue.
Instead it is a tool, and sometimes a weapon, to be wielded in support of ideological campaigns of both benign and malevolent intent. There are in fact distinct entities that are confused by the identity of label. There is a philosophical social justice, at home in the academy and an orphan on the street.
There is political social justice, a protean pathogen that consists almost exclusively of emotional and sophistic appeals and often with malign motives. There is religious social justice, which to the non-religious is a laudable attempt to give some relevance to the Gospel of Luke and the Beatitudes. In practice, the term social justice is often the referent for an ipse dixit fallacy; if the one invoking it says social justice demands an action or sacrifice, that is all the authority necessary to justify it.
This is made easier because the contemporary intellectual environment is largely dismissive of classical thought regarding justice, not because such thought was disproven or even discredited, but because it is not sufficiently useful to present interests. Contemporary understandings of justice use words as camouflage for the less emotionally vibrant concepts that underlie them. The progressive tends to seek evidence of a deprivation in the hunt for social justice, and as a result progressive discourse is seemingly limited to decrying specific injustices, without much thought given to what the world would be like when all such outrages are suppressed by force.
The more pragmatic view of justice is that it is concerned primarily with consequences, that the result of a particular action or choice is appropriate. This is the notion that lends authority to the criminal law, and makes it common sense to enforce contracts, and maintain concepts from the law of equity quantum meruit , clean hands and so forth. All of which is to say that the classical concepts of social justice or general justice, or legal justice and its derivatives are very relevant and useful to moral philosophy, but should not be confused with the homonymous political concept that is as likely to cause misery as to relieve it.
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And its foundation is in large scale industry and commerce. Having held back to see if those would be examined the concepts rather than just the implications of the terminology, this is now offered:. Those obligations also form the basis for individual morals, and where recognized, accepted, performed or enforced with sufficient commonality by individuals in any social order produce the accepted standards of morality. Accordingly, some obligations originate from the nature of conditions that frame any particular human relationship, both with other humans, and their surroundings.
To understand justice in any particular context requires understanding of the origins and conditions of the obligations involved. Obligations can include responsibilities, commitments and duties, each of which may be differentiated by the nature of their origination. That origination will vary with the nature of relationships. This results in a disregard for the necessary determination of the origins and conditions of the obligations, and how such collective obligations become the duty of individuals; and more importantly, how the obligations of individuals become collective obligations.
There is of course much more to this line of thought; but this is meant only as a comment and not intended as an essay. I think that the thrust of your comment is valid, but some of the force is dissipated by being overly general. There is undoubtably a source of obligation that is relevant to considerations of justice, and there are sources that are not. You suggest this when you state that the determining factors of justice are the origins and conditions of obligations.
Two queries immediately arise: 1. Do all obligations, whatever their source, create the conditions for justice; and 2.
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If not, what are the characteristics that distinguish justice invoking and non-justice invoking obligations? Is there some objective criterion by which to classify obligations and their relationship to justice? I think the point is blunted somewhat when you mention that obligations are sometimes imposed by force. The use of force itself might be considered prima facie evidence of injustice, rather than the opposite.
I am thinking here of the Nazi-created obligation for residents of conquered territories to identify those hiding Jews, or the Khmer Rouge or North Korean demands that citizens report persons suspected of disloyalty or counter-revolutionary attitudes. Douglas Hofstadter might very well develop a paradox through the use of self reference: Imagine that the state imposes an obligation that requires one citizen to commit an injustice against another. I understand that you have much more to say, and I think there is a certain truth in what you have already written, but I would be interested in learning your thoughts about whether anything that is called an obligation, by virtue of nomenclature, creates any imperatives demanded by justice.
This forum is apparently for invited participants and may not be appropriate for extended dialogue between commentators. So, this response will be limited:. The question reverses the relationship. The characteristics of the relationships giving rise to the need for the process of justice invoke determination of the nature of the obligations involved, and accordingly consideration of the conditions giving rise to the obligations.